D.O.P. wines – Denomination of protected origin
(D.O.C. and D.O.C.G.)
The D. O.P. category of wines in Italy includes D. O.C. wines (controlled designation of origin) and D. O.C. G. wines (controlled and guaranteed designation of origin).
Wines with a designation of origin are produced in a defined geographical area, with very precise chemical and organoleptic characteristics, which have been established in advance according to specific production criteria, or the Rules of Production (Disciplinari di Produzione).
These specifications determine the types of wine that can be produced, the quantities of grapes that can be obtained for each hectare of vines, the varieties to be used, the conversion efficiency of the grapes into wine, the minimum natural alcoholic percentage and for consumption, the type and duration of eventual aging. The grapes used for the production of D. O.P. wines are 100% produced, processed and prepared within the delimited geographical area.
In reality, the complete production cycle (from the vine to the bottle) must comply with the provisions of the Rules f Production. In addition, D.O. P. wines (D. O.C. and D. O.C. G.), unlike the previous categories, are also controlled qualitatively: before being placed on the market, they must be subjected to physico-chemical and organoleptic analyses to ensure their compliance with the requirements of the Rules of Production (Disciplinare di Produzione).
D.O. C.G. wines, for their part, are subject to stricter production rules and have specifications which are much more restrictive than those of D. O.C. wines. Before being recognized as D. O.C. G., these wines must have been certified D. O.C. wines for at least five years.
Each bottle of D. O.C. G. wine must have a branding from the State, i.e. a band with an alphanumeric code issued by the State and placed on the neck of the bottle. This branding is allocated to the bottlers for each bottle produced.
I.G.P. Typical Geographical Indication (or I.G.T.)
Indicates the name of a region, a specific location, or in exceptional cases, a country, and used to describe a wine originating from that region, that specific location or country – which has determined qualities, a reputation or other characteristics that can be attributed to that specific geographical origin.
At least 85% of the grapes used to produce I.G.T. wines must come exclusively from this geographical area. The delimitation of vinification areas for grapes was introduced for I.G.T. wines. This means that it will no longer be possible to produce an I.G.T. wine with grapes harvested in one area, but vinified in another (except for the 15% of the grapes that can originate from outside). I.G.T. wines are also subject to stricter control procedures.
Generic wines that have the possibility of indicating the year and/or the grape variety, are wines with no reference to origin and can be produced with grapes from various geographical areas or several Member States. They may have on the label a reference to the year and/or the grape variety used.